There are three DynamoDB limits you must know

  1. An individual record in DynamoDB is called an item, and a single DynamoDB item cannot exceed 400KB.
  2. There is a 1MB limit on the size of an individual scan or query request.
  3. You can use up to 3,000 Read Capacity Units (RCUs) and up to 1,000 Write Capacity Units (WCUs) on a single partition per second.

During a high velocity event one afternoon we learned the important lesson of #3

DynamoDB has a read limit of 3,000 per second

Our user traffic is very sporadic and comes in bursts. …


I faced a challenge with our EFS throughput which caused significant load increases on our EC2 instances (upwards of 30,000!!) as well as extreme delays reading and writing to the EFS volume.

The EFS volume (network storage) was setup in Bursting Throughput mode which means that Amazon scales the throughput based on the size of our file system. Our size at the time of the incident was 26.81GB which means we have a permitted throughput of 1 MiB/sec based on our size. However, we are generally pushing around 1.1 miB / sec which exceeded our throughput limit. Because of this…


Epic just unveiled Unreal Engine 5 and it looks amazing! Intel Labs is working with Grand Theft Auto on a new machine learning project called Enhancing Photorealism Enhancement and the footage looks unreal. It will be hard to distinguish video games from real life soon, which got me thinking….Where are we with AI? We’ve heard a lot of promises…….

What is AI doing and what is it not doing and what lies ahead?

Right now we have narrow AI. This is when systems perform very specific tasks. …


Did you know that Wednesdays are the most productive day of the week for developers?

Would you guess that the most productive coding times are between 3p and 5p ?

It’s been over a year since many companies have digitally transformed and embraced a remote working culture. Data is starting to emerge and the findings can help companies and talent adjust to increase productivity and efficiency.

Software.com is in a very unique position to share their global data with us on developers around the world. Late fall 2020, they were able to analyze data from developers that worked in the…


You are a tech company, whether you know it or not. Hopefully you embrace this sooner than later.

In 2019 Impossible Foods made an important decision to bring in executives from Motorola and Dropbox. Immediately, they were hit with a crisis when they ran out of their meatless meat. As most startups can relate, they were facing short-term challenges as demand skyrocketed. They were scalable, but they needed the right people to run it. Their decision to bring in tech executives with experience in expansions in times of breakthrough growth would prove successful.

Those in the tech space have the…


The pandemic has taken a toll on restaurants. Some may never come back. We all witnessed years of innovation compressed into months.

I personally think the future of dining looks a little different than it does today.

Picture this.

With the hybrid office model you want to get together with co-workers for drinks or something to eat, you know since we don’t see them every day :) Or perhaps you are getting together with a friend you haven’t seen since say, March 2020. Or two families want to enjoy a Saturday afternoon together.

You take out your phone and reserve…


Be honest.

How many of us can quickly tell executives the following regarding our cloud costs?

  • Why did our monthly spend go up or down?
  • Which service or workload caused the increase?
  • Is the increase in traffic upstream or downstream?
  • Was the bill higher due to an increase in user logins?
  • Can we associate cost to a specific business transaction?

I cannot, but I was curious and as I dive into “Cloud FinOps”, I am understanding a few things that may help others.


Edge Computing can increase performance, enhance security, cut costs and enable more reliability / scalability. If you haven’t already embraced this new “last mile” delivery, you may soon.

Amazon released their first public cloud computing service (S3) 15 years ago. Companies, particularly the enterprise, are still migrating to the cloud. In the past three years there has been a shift from cloud computing to Edge Computing.

Edge Computing refers to the computations that take place at the edge of the Internet, as opposed to Cloud Computing, where computations happen at a central place. This “edge” can be a branch /…


Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) are unique digital assets that exist on the blockchain easily allowing proof of authenticity.

Back in early 2018, I gave a talk at the University of Central Florida’s Launchpad entitled “Leveraging the Block Chain in your Startup “. Crypto was gaining momentum and awareness and I was spit balling ideas with a room full of college students looking to launch their startups leveraging the blockchain. We chuckled at one of the first NFTs called CryptoKitties and how I bought one for my daughter because she thought it was cute. …


Ever need to run a script prior to a planned or unplanned reboot or shutdown?

We had a need recently to run a script prior to an EC2 instance being shutdown. This would ensure that a proper fail-over happened and that the environment was updated with the new topology.

In short here is what we did to solve the challenge:

  1. Create your script

#!/bin/bash
your awesome code here

  1. Create a system.d service file in /usr/lib/systemd/system/shutdown.service

[Unit]
Description=my_shutdown Service
Before=shutdown.target reboot.target halt.target
Requires=network-online.target network.target

[Service]
KillMode=none
ExecStart=/bin/true
ExecStop=/path/to/script/my_awesome_script.sh
RemainAfterExit=yes
Type=oneshot

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

  1. Add this service to multi-user.target

Systemctl enable shutdown.service

  1. Start…

Dale Frohman

Principal Site Reliability Engineer. Cyber Security Professional. Technologist. Leader.

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